What does a piston pump do?

A piston pump in metering technology is a mechanical conveying device that delivers liquids or viscous materials in predefined metering quantities in a precise and controlled manner through the movement of a piston or plunger. These pumps are widely used in industrial applications where accurate metering of materials is required to ensure product quality, process control and efficiency.

3D model of a Piston Pump
Piston pumps improve numerous production processes through efficiency and precision

How does a piston pump work?

A piston pump operates on the principle of a piston or plunger motion, which allows liquids or viscous materials to be precisely delivered in predefined metering quantities.

Piston and cylinder:
The main components of a piston pump are a piston and a cylinder. The piston is a moving component that reciprocates within the cylinder. The cylinder is the housing that holds the piston.

Inlet and outlet valves:
The piston pump has inlet and outlet valves. The inlet valve allows fluid flow into the cylinder, while the outlet valve directs fluid flow out of the cylinder into the dispensing system or point.

Suction phase:
During the suction phase, the piston moves toward the cylinder, reducing the pressure inside the cylinder. The inlet valve opens and fluid is drawn into the cylinder. This is often done by negative pressure or by the backward movement of the piston.

Pumping and metering:
After the suction phase, the direction of delivery occurs. The piston moves in the direction of the exhaust valve. This movement increases the pressure in the cylinder and the outlet valve opens. The liquid is forced out of the cylinder with precise metering and discharged into the metering system or metering point.

This cycle of suction, delivery and metering is repeated continuously to provide the desired amount of material to be metered. The speed and metering volume can be precisely adjusted by controlling the piston movement and valves.

The precision of a piston pump in metering technology is based on the accurate control of piston movement, valve opening and closing times, and pressure in the system. This makes it possible to deliver materials at very precise metering rates, which is important in various industries to ensure product quality and process control. Piston pumps are often used in combination with flowmeters and control systems to further improve metering precision.

What are the advantages of a piston pump?

Piston pumps offer numerous advantages in various applications, especially in situations where precise metering or high pressure generation is required. Some of the advantages are summarized below:

Precise metering:
Piston pumps allow extremely precise metering of liquids or viscous materials. Precise control of piston movement enables the delivery of predefined metering quantities, which is important in many industries to ensure product quality and process consistency.

High pressure:
Piston pumps are capable of generating very high pressures. This makes them ideal for applications where materials must be pumped at high pressure, such as in waterjet cutting or high-pressure cleaners.

Metering with piston pumps is extremely repeatable. The same amount of material is dispensed with each dispensing cycle, improving product quality and process control.

Piston pumps can be used for a wide range of liquids and viscous materials, including chemicals, oils, food products, paints, adhesives and more.

Piston pumps are typically rugged and durable. They can be used in demanding environments and at high operating pressures.

Accurate control:
Metering volume and metering speed can be precisely controlled and adjusted to meet the requirements of a specific application.

Piston pumps are efficient and can achieve high metering rates with comparatively low energy consumption.

Low pulsation:
In many piston pumps, uniform and low pulsation of liquid flow is achieved, which is advantageous in applications where stable feeding is required.

Ease of maintenance:
Piston pumps are often easy to maintain and clean or service, which reduces operating costs.

They can be adapted for various applications and environments, including explosion-proof environments, food processing, chemical and more.

Because of these advantages, piston pumps are widely used in many industries, including pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, chemicals, petrochemicals, water and wastewater treatment, manufacturing and many others.